Kiran UPSC Mains GS Paper-I Short Notes By IPS Vikas Sangwan Air -123, 2017 English (2643)

(as of May 13,2021 07:12:50 UTC – Details)

KIRAN UPSC MAINS GS PAPER-I SHORT NOTES BY IPS VIKAS SANGWAN AIR -123, 2017 ENGLISH(2643) Ancient and medieval History Modern History Post Independence World History Art & Culture Physical Geography Location f Industries And Resources Social Issues, Society CONTENTS : GS-1 INDIAN HERITAGE AND CULTURE, HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY OF THE WORLD AND SOCIETY ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL HISTORY PREHISTORIC PERIOD: PALEOLITHIC AGE, MESOLITHIC AGE, AND CHALCOLITHIC AGE  Paleolithic Age Art  Mesolithic period Art:  Chalcolithic period Art: INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION  Features of Indus Valley Civilization  Indus Valley Sites and Specialties  Harappa  Mohenjodaro  Chanhudaro  Kalibangan  Lothal  Ropar  Banawali  Dholavira  Religion of Indus Valley People  Indus Valley Society and Culture  Reasons for Decline of Indus Valley Civilization BUDDHISM AND JAINISM  Buddhism  Jainism  The sangha  Monasteries  System of ashramas MAURYA AND POST MAURYA  Asoka, The Emperor  Ruling the empire  Ashoka’s dhamma  Villages and Towns  Traders, Kings and Pilgrims  Silk Route & Kushans  Spread of Buddhism  Bhakti GUPTA AND POST GUPTA  Guptas  Harshavardhana & Harshacharita  The Pallavas, Chalukyas and Pulakeshin  Buildings, Paintings and Books EARLY MEDIEVAL INDIA  Rajput Kingdoms  Arab Conquest of Sind (712 A.D.)  Mahmud of Ghazni and his Invasions  Mahmud of Ghazni (A.D. 997-1030)  Muhammad Ghori  The Battle of Tarain (1191-1192)  Causes for the failure of Hindu kingdoms DELHI SULTANATE (1206-1526)  Slave Dynasty  Qutbuddin Aibak (1206-1210)  Iltutmish (1211-1236)  Raziya (1236-1240)  Era of Balban (1246-1287)  Alauddin Khalji (1296-1316)  Military Campaigns  The Tughlaq Dynasty (1320-1414)  Muhammad bin Tughlaq (1325-1351) Transfer of Capital Token Currency  Taxation in Doab Agricultural Reforms Rebellions  Firoz Tughlaq (1351-1388) Military Campaigns Administrative Reforms  Sayyids (1414-1451)  Lodis (1451-1526) INDIA UNDER THE DELHI SULTANATE  Administration  Central Government Local Administration  Economy  Social Life  Art and Architecture  Music  Literature BHAKTI AND SUFI MOVEMENT  Brahminism vs Buddhism/Jainism vs Devotional Paths (Bhaktism, Sufism, and Sikhism)  Bhakti cult  Nayanars and Alvars  Philosophy and Bhakti  Basavanna’s Virashaivism  Saints of Maharashtra  Nathpanthis, Siddhas, and Yogis  Saint Kabir  Sufi Movement and Islam  Baba Guru Nanak (1469-1539) and Sikhism VIJAYANAGAR AND BAHMANI KINGDOMS  Vijayanagar Empire  Krishna Deva Raya (1509 – 1530)  Bahmani Kingdom  Mahmud Gawan THE MUGHAL EMPIRE  Babur (1526-1530)  Humayun (1530-1540)  Sur dynasty Interregnum (1540-1555)  Humayun (1555-1556)  Akbar (1556-1605)  Jahangir (1605-1627)  Shah Jahan (1627-1658)  Aurangazeb (1658-1707)  Causes for the Downfall of the Mughals INDIA UNDER THE MUGHALS  Economic and Social Life  Mughal Nobility  Rural Masses  Agriculture  Growth of Trade  Cultural Development under the Mughals  Art and Architecture  Paintings and Music  Language and Literature THE MARATHAS  The Rise of the Marathas  Shivaji (1627-1680): His Life and Conquests  Shivaji’s Administration  The Peshwas (1713-1818)  Balaji Viswanath (1713-1720) Baji Rao I (1720-1740) Balaji Baji Rao (1740-1761) THE COMING OF EUROPEANS  The Portuguese  The Dutch  The English  The French  Anglo-French Rivalry  The Carnatic Wars  Establishment of British Power in Bengal LAND REVENUE SYSTEMS UNDER BRITISH RULE  Before British Rule  Zamindari System  Ryotwari System  Mahalwari System  Land Reforms in India After Independence MODERN HISTORY INDIA IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY  Bahadur Shah 1 (1707-12)  Jahandar Shah (1712-13)  Farrukh Siyar (1713-19)  Muhammad Shah ‘Rangeela’ (1719-1748)  Nadir Shah’s Invasion (1738)  Ahmed Shah Abdali  Shah Alam II 1759  Decline of the Mughal Empire  Hyderabad and the Carnatic  Bengal  Awadh  Mysore  Kerala  Rajput States Jats  Sikhs  Marathas SARANJAMI SYSTEM : ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION OF THE BRITISH  Army  Police  Judiciary  Civil Cases  Criminal Cases  William Bentinck  Spread of Modern Education  Major drawbacks of the English education system:  Development of Education INDIAN NATINOAL MOVEMENT REVOLT OF 1857 CIVIL REBELLIONS AND TRIBAL UPRISINGS PEASANT UPRISINGS WHY DID NATIONAL MOVEMENT ARISE? RISE OF INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS CONTRIBUTION OF EARLY NATIONALISTS METHODS OF WORK OF EARLY NATIONALISTS SOCIO-RELIGIOUS REFORMS ECONOMICAL ANALYSIS OF BRITISH INDIA FREEDOM OF PRESS B G TILAK EXECUTIVE COUNCIL THE SWADESHI MOVEMENT: 1903-1908 PARTITION OF BENGAL THE SWADESHI MOVEMENT REVOLUTIONARY TERRORISM THE SPLIT IN THE CONGRESS MORLEY-MINTO REFORMS, 1909 GROWTH OF COMMUNALISM MUSLIM LEAGUE MUSLIM NATIONALISTS WORLD WAR I AND INDIAN NATIONALISM THE HOME RULE MOVEMENT LUCKNOW PACT (1916) ROWLATT ACT GANDHI’S EARLY CAREER AND ACTIVISM  Champaran Satyagraha (1917)  Ahmedabad Mill Strike (1918)  Kheda Satyagraha (1918) NON CO-OPERATION MOVEMENT PEASANT MOVEMENTS THE WORKING CLASS MOVEMENTS STRUGGLES FOR GURUDWARA REFORM AND TEMPLE ENTRY THE YEARS OF STAGNATION BHAGAT SINGH EVENTS TIMELINE SIMON COMMISSION (1927) CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT THE QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT AND THE INA INA AUGUST OFFER (1940) CR FORMULA FREEDOM AND PARTITION POST INDEPENDENCE ……………………… 133 INDIA, JUST AFTER INDEPENDENCE PARTITION AND ITS AFTERMATH PLAN OF CONSOLIDATION INDIAN CONSTITUTION CHALLENGES BEFORE INDEPENDENT STATE OF INDIA PATEL’S DIPLOMACY JUNAGADH JAWAHAR LAL NEHRU: THE FIRST PRIME MINISTEROF INDIA LINGUISTIC REORGANISATION OF INDIAN STATES AFTER INDEPENDENCE SHAH COMMISSION TRIBAL INTEGRATION ROOTS OF INDIA TRIBAL POLICY REASONS FOR DISMAL PERFORMANCE OF TRIBAL POLICY POSITIVE DEVELOPMENT HAPPENED DUE TO STATE’S INITIATIVE ISSUES OF LANGUAGE THE BRITISH POLICY  The debate in the period 1941-1951  The Constituent Assembly Debate  The Debate in 1951-1957  Regionalism in Post-independent India ECONOMIC IMBALANCES & REGIONALISM  Sons of Soil Doctrine  Issue of J & K, Punjab  Root – Cause of the Problem PUNJAB ISSUE  Road to Peace  Problems with North-East Region ESTABLISHMENT OF PLANNING COMMISSION NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT COUNCIL NITI AAYOG: THE REPLACEMENT OF PLANNING COMMISSION IN 2014 REGIONALISM, REGIONAL INEQUALITIES AND NATIONAL CONSOLIDATION FOREIGN AFFAIRS FOREIGN POLICY UNDER JAWAHAR LAL NEHRU RELATIONS WITH CHINA NON-ALIGN MOVEMENT (NAM) NAM’S OBJECTIVES  What is Relevance of NAM today?  How can NAM be Strengthened?  Indus Water Treaty  Revisiting the Treaty  Sino-India War 1962  Important facts on Indo-Sino war 1962 FORWARD POLICY DEMISE OF INDIA’S FIRST PRIME MINISTER: JAWAHAR LAL NEHRU’S DEATH LEGACY OF PANDIT JAWAHAR LAL NEHRU LAL BAHADUR SHASTRI: THE MAN OF TURBULENT TIMES  Foreign Policy of India under Lal Bahadur Shastri 1965 INDO-PAK WAR  Foreign Powers during the 1965 War THE TASHKENT DECLARATION MYSTERY OF SHASTRI’S DEATH OPERATION FLOOD: BEGINNING OF INDIA’S WHITE REVOLUTION ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE WHITE REVOLUTION IMPACT OF NEW AGRICULTURAL STRATEGY GREEN REVOLUTION IN INDIA  Impact or the Effects of Green Revolution  Limitations of the Green Revolution NAXALISM IN INDIA: THE BEGINNING OF “BIGGEST INTERNAL SECURITY THREAT” IN INDIA GOVERNMENT’S FAILURE TO UNDERSTAND THE REASONS BEHIND THE NAXALITE MOVEMENT ORIGINS OF DISCONTENT LEFT WING POLITICS TOOK UP THE CAUSE OF THE EXPLOITED NAXALITE MOVEMENT IN KOLKATA  Subsequent Government Measures in Fighting the Naxalites  Operation Green Hunt  Precursor of Operation Green Hunt LAND REFORMS IN INDEPENDENT INDIA BHOODAN-GRAMDAN MOVEMENT  What is ‘Land Reforms’?  Objectives of land reforms after independence ZAMINDARI ABOLITION ACTS LAND CEILINGS ACT  Outcomes of Land Reforms  Drawbacks of Land Reforms INDIRA GANDHI: THE FIRST WOMAN PRIME MINISTER OF INDIA 187  Initial years of Indira Gandhi as Prime Minister ABOLITION OF PRIVY PURSE  Nationalisation of Banks  Objectives Behind Nationalisation of Banks in India  Demerits, Limitations – Bank Nationalisation in India BACKGROUND OF 1971 INDO-PAKISTAN WAR SHIMLA AGREEMENT EMERGENCY PERIOD DURING THE PRIME-MINISTER SHIP OF INDIRA GANDHI YEARS PRECEDING THE EMERGENCY PROTESTS IN NORTHERN INDIA  Disqualification of Indira Gandhi as an MP  Proclamation of Emergency  What occurred during the emergency?  Excesses during the Emergency  Was the Emergency justified? THE END OF EMERGENCY AND AFTER PUNJAB INSURGENCY: THE ORIGIN OF KHALISTAN MOVEMENT BACKGROUND OF PUNJAB INSURGENCY  Immediate Causes  Operation Blue Star: The encounter of Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale  Operation Black Thunder WHAT WAS ANANDPUR SAHIB RESOLUTION? COMPARISON WITH OPERATION BLUE STAR  Assassination of Indira Gandhi  Nuclear Program of India  Foreign Policy under Indira Gandhi  Relations with Foreign Countries  Relations with Neighbouring Countries ECONOMIC RELATIONS  Maritime Boundary Dispute INDIRA GANDHI YEARS: SIGNIFICANT TIME PERIOD FOR INDIAN WILDLIFE CONSERVATION RAJIV GANDHI YEARS BHOPAL GAS TRAGEDY OPERATION CACTUS, 1988 INDIA-SRILANKA PEACE ACCORD  Background of the Accord  Provisions of the Peace Accord  Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War  Conflict with the LTTE and returning of Indian Peacekeeping Force (IPKF) SHAH-BANO CASE PV NARASIMHA RAO (1991-1996) ECONOMIC REFORM OF 1991  The Crisis of 1991 and the Reforms  The Emergence of New Reforms  Liberalisation PRIVATISATION GLOBALIZATION FOREIGN POLICY OF NARASIMHA RAO GOVERNMENT BABRI MASJID DEMOLITION KASHMIR ISSUE DURING NARASIMHA RAO GOVERNMENT INDIA PASSES KASHMIR RESOLUTION  Pakistan tables the resolution at UN  How Shrewdly PV Narasimha Rao Played the Cards  The Smart Moves Behind the Stage GENERAL ELECTION OF 1996  The Political Scenario  11th Lok Sabha Results WORLD HISTORY………………………………. 236 RENAISSANCE CHARACTERISTIC OF RENAISSANCE  Humanism  Art  Science MAJOR IDEAS OF ENLIGHTENMENT  Rousseau’s  Immanuel Kant  American Revolution  Nature and Character of American Colony  Nature and Character of British Rule in America  Urges and Aspirations of American People  Immediate Cause of Revolution FRENCH REVOLUTION DIFFERENT PHASES OF REVOLUTION  Estates-General  National Assembly (1789-1791)  Legislative Assembly and National Convention (1792-1795)  The Directory (1795-1799)  The Consulate and Empire (1799-1815) REFORMS MADE BY NAPOLEON WARS OF NAPOLEON  War of the First Coalition  War of the Second Coalition  War of the Third Coalition  War of the Fourth Coalition  War of the Fifth Coalition  War of the Sixth Coalition  War of the Seventh Coalition “THE SPANISH ULCER” LEGACY OF FRENCH REVOLUTION  The Declaration of the Rights of Man  Inspiring Other Political Revolutions in Europe, Paving the way to Democracy INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION FIRST REFORMATION ACT OF 1832  Chartist Movement  Demands of the People’s Charter  The National Convention  Outcome  Failure of Chartist Movement  Legacy of Chartist Movement RISE OF NATIONALISM IN THE 19TH CENTURY  Italian Unification  German Unification  Austro-Prussian War (1866) RUSSIAN REVOLUTION THE FEBRUARY 1917 REVOLUTION  Provisional Government vs. The Petrograd Soviet  Lenin Returns From Exile  The October 1917 Revolution  Civil War FASCIST COUNTER REVOLUTION IN ITALY MUSSOLINI AND THE RISE OF FASCISM IN ITALY CHINESE REVOLUTION OF 1949 FIRST WORLD WAR AND SECOND WORLD WAR AS TOTAL WAR  First World War  Mutual Defense Alliances IMMEDIATE CAUSE: ASSASSINATION OF ARCHDUKE FRANZ FERDINAND  Impact of World War-I  The Political Impact of World War-I THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF WORLD WAR-I SOCIAL IMPACT OF WORLD WAR-I  Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye THE “FOURTEEN POINTS”  Treaty of Versailles  League of Nation  The organisation of the League of Nations THE SUCCESSES OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS  The Aaland Islands (1921)  Upper Silesia (1921)  Greece and Bulgaria (1925)  The failures of the League of Nations  Italy (1919)  Teschen (1919)  Vilna (1920) THE INVASION OF THE RUHR (1923) ITALY AND ALBANIA (1923) WORLD WAR II MAIN CAUSES OF WORLD WAR-II EFFECTS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES FAILURE OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS RISE OF FASCISM & THE NAZI PARTY THE NAZIS ASSUME POWER GERMANY REMILITARIZES THE ANSCHLUSS THE MUNICH CONFERENCE THE MOLOTOV-RIBBENTROP PACT ANTI-COMINTERN PACT AND TRIPARTITE PACT THE INVASION OF POLAND CONSEQUENCES OF WORLD WAR-II WAR CRIME THE UNITED NATION OCCUPATION TERRITORIAL CHANGES PEACE TREATIES RECONSTRUCTION NEW SUPER POWER WOMEN RIGHT COLD WAR  Causes of the Cold War in 1945  The Iron Curtain  The Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan NATO THE KOREAN WAR THE WARSAW PACT THE SUEZ CRISIS, 1956 THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS THE MALTA SUMMIT 1989 EMERGENCE OF THIRD WORLD AND NAM EVOLUTION OF THIRD WORLD  Positive Aspect of NAM RELEVANCE OF NON-ALIGNMENT IN TODAY’S WORLD DISINTEGRATION OF SOVIET UNION THE ORIGINS AND EVOLUTION OF THE SOVIET STATE MIKHAIL GORBACHEV’S GLASNOST AND PERESTROIKA THE REVOLUTIONS OF 1989 AND THE FALL OF THE SOVIET UNION CONSOLIDATION AND EXPANSION OF EUROPEAN UNION THE MODERN-DAY EU LATIN AMERICA- SIMON BOLIVAR ‘EL LIBERTADOR’ LATER YEARS, DEATH AND LEGACY SOUTH AFRICA- APARTHEID BIRTH OF APARTHEID APARTHEID BECOMES LAW APARTHEID AND SEPARATE DEVELOPMENT OPPOSITION TO APARTHEID APARTHEID COMES TO AN END VIETNAM WAR  Ho Chi Minh Comes Home  France Steps Out, U.S. Steps In  First U.S. Ground Troops Sent to Vietnam  Johnson’s Plan for Success  Surprise Attack  Nixon’s Plan for “Peace with Honor”  The Paris Peace Accords  Reunification of Vietnam DECOLONIZATION OF ASIA AND AFRICA, 1945-1960 ART & CULTURE ……………………………….. 293 ANCIENT MONUMENTS AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITES REMAINS ACT (2017 AMENDMENT) CHAMPARAN 1917 (FIRST CDM UNDER GANDHI) PAIKA REBELLION -ODISHA RABINDRANATH TAGORE PT. MADAN MOHAN MALAVIYA (MAHAMANA) WOMEN FREEDOM FIGHTERS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION IN LATER HALF OF 20TH CENTURY ROLE OF FOREIGN WOMEN IN FREEDOM STRUGGLE PREHISTORIC ROCK PAINTINGS IN INDIA  Paleolithic Age Art  Mesolithic period Art:  Chalcolithic period Art SOME OF THE GENERAL FEATURES OF PREHISTORIC PAINTINGS ARTS OF INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION MATERIALS USED: STONE, BRONZE, TERRACOTTA, CLAY ETC.  Stone Statues:  Terracotta:  Seals:  Pottery:  Beads, Ornaments and Cosmetics: ARTS OF THE MAURYAN PERIOD PILLARS LION CAPITAL, SARNATH YAKSHAS AND YAKSHINIS DIDARGANJ YAKSHI ROCK CUT ARCHITECTURES LOMUS RISHI CAVE, BARABAR HILLS STUPAS AND CHAITYAS: DEPICTION OF BUDDHA IN CHAITYAS INDIAN ARCHITECTURE AFTER THE MAURYAN PERIOD PLACES WHERE IMPORTANT SCULPTURES ARE SEEN BARHUT SANCHI MATHURA, SARNATH, AMARAVATI AND GANDHARA SCHOOLS SEATED BUDDHA AT SARNATH, UP: BUDDHA HEAD, TAXILA, GANDHARA: AMARAVATI STUPA, ANDHRA PRADESH: CAVE TRADITION IN WESTERN INDIA AJANTA ELLORA ELEPHANTA CAVES AND OTHER SITES: CAVE TRADITION IN EASTERN INDIA EARLY TEMPLES LATER MURAL TRADITIONS BADAMI: MURALS UNDER PALLAVA, PANDAVA AND CHOLA KINGS: VIJAYANAGARA MURAL KERALA MURAL TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE AND SCULPTURE – HINDU, BUDDHIST AND JAIN THE NAGARA OR NORTH INDIAN TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE CENTRAL INDIA WEST INDIA EAST INDIA ASSAM: BENGAL ODISHA (KALINGIA ARCHITECTURE) THE DRAVIDA OR SOUTH INDIAN TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE PALLAVAS THE SHORE TEMPLE AT MAHABALIPURAM, TAMIL NADU THE VESARA OR THE DECCAN TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE BUDDHIST AND JAIN ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMENTS BRONZE SCULPTURES OF INDIA INDO-ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE INDIAN PHILOSOPHY: ORTHODOX AND HETERODOX SCHOOLS  Difference between Astik schools and Nastik schools  Six Orthodox Schools  Sankhya Philosophy  Yoga Philosophy  Nyaya Philosophy  Vaisheshik Philosophy  Purva mimansa (mimansa)  Uttara Mimamsa (Vedanda)  Three Heterodox Schools of Indian Philosophy  Carvaka  Jain Philosophy  Ajivika Philosophy  Buddhist Philosophy  Buddhist Councils ORIGIN OF CLASSICAL DANCES  Bharatnatyam  Kathak  Odissi  Kuchipudi  Kathakali  Mohiniattam  Manipuri  Sattriya  Hindustani and Carnatic Music  Theatre Forms in India:  KOODIYATTAM  Bhand Pather  Swang  Nautanki  Raasleela  Bhavai  Maach  Jatra  Bhaona  Tamaasha  Mudiyettu  Dashavatar  Yakshagaana  Oja-Pali PUPPETRY IN INDIA  String puppets:  Shadow puppets  Rod Puppets  Glove Puppets PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY ……………………. 340 LITHOSPHERE INTERIOR OF EARTH STRUCTURE OF EARTH EARTH MOVEMENTS ROCKS ROCK FORMATION ROCK FORMATION MOUNTAIN TYPES PLATEAU TYPES PLAIN TYPES EARTHQUAKES WAVE TYPES SHADOW ZONE EARTHQUAKE ZONING VOLCANOES  Types of lava  Examples in India  Types of volcano (on frequency)  Classification on Mode of Eruption:  Intrusive Volcanic Land Formations  Extrusive Volcanic Land Formations (Volcanic Types)  Location of Volcanoes SOIL FORMATION GEYSERS HOT SPRINGS OR THERMAL SPRINGS FUMAROLES: GEOMORPHIC PROCESS – WEATHERING, MASS MOVT  Chemical weathering  Physical/Mechanical weathering  Bio weathering/Organic weathering  Mass movement: SOILS  Soil Classification LANDFORMS RUNNING WATER/RIVER SYSTEM  Drainage pattern:  River erosion and transportation:  Erosional landforms:  Depositional Landforms GROUND WATER  Karst Topography  Erosional Landforms  Depositional Landforms GLACIERS  Erosional landforms  Depositional Landforms DESERTS (ACTION OF WIND)  Erosional landforms  Depositional landforms LAKES COASTAL LANDFORMS DISTRIBUTION OF OCEAN AND CONTINENTS ATMOSPHERE HYDROSPHERE EL NINO: LA NINA: TROPICAL CYCLONES TSUNAMIS (HARBOUR WAVES): SOILS OF INDIA: CLASSIF ICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS  Soil Classification – Urvara vs Usara  Soil Classification – Agencies involved : Alluvial soil: MAJOR CLASSIFICATION OF INDIAN SOILS  Red soil:  Alluvial soil:  Red soil:  Black soil / regur soil:  Laterite soil:  Desert / arid soil:  Peaty / marshy soil:  Forest soil:  Mountain soil: COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE  Composition of the atmosphere  Carbon dioxide:  Ozone gas:  Water Vapour  Dust Particles  Structure of the atmosphere  Troposphere  Stratosphere  Mesosphere  Thermosphere  Exosphere CLOUD AND ITS TYPES DISTRIBUTION OF TEMPERATURE IN THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE  Difference between heat and temperature  Distribution of Temperature  Horizontal Distribution of Temperature  Horizontal Distribution of Temperature in January  Horizontal Distribution of Temperature in July  Vertical Distribution of Temperature  Inversion of Temperature MOVEMENTS OF OCEAN WATER: WAVES, TIDES AND OCEAN CURRENTS  Waves  Tides  Flow Tide and Ebb Tide  Types of Tides  Magnitude of Tides  Effects of tides  Ocean Currents  Gyre, Drift, and Stream  Types of Ocean Currents:  Factors influencing the origin and nature of ocean currents LOCATIONS OF INDUSTRIES AND RESOURCES……………………………… 379 LOCATION FACTORS  Footloose industries  Tea Industry  Palm Oil  Lumbering industries CASH CROPS JUTE INDUSTRY FISHERIES POWER/ENERGY  Thermal Power plants  Hydro-power  Shale Oil and Gas / Fracking MINERALS  Rare Earth Metals  Reserves  Aluminum Industry PHARMA/ IT/ AUTOMOBILE/OTHER MODERN INDUSTRIES  Pharma Industry  Automobile Industry  IT industry/MNC – consists of IT services and BPO. SOCIAL ISSUES …………………………………. 388 ROLE OF WOMEN AND WOMEN’S ORGANIZATION  Role of Women  Women in India  Role of Women in Prehistoric Time  The Age of the Upanishads  In the Age 600 BC to 320 AD  Period of 320 to 750 A D  Women in Early Medieval Period  Women in Medieval India  Women in the Bhakti Movement  Women in Modern India  Status of women in India during the British Period  Women’s Organization in India  Pre-Independence  Period of Post-Independence IMPACT OF GLOBALISATION ON INDIA  Globalization and India ………………… 405 IMPACTS OF GLOBALISATION IN INDIA  Economic Impact  Socio-Cultural Impact on Indian Society  Psychological Impact on Indian Society EFFECTS OF GLOBALISATION ON INDIAN SOCIETY  Aspects of Globalisation in India  Concept of Globalisation  Challenges of Globalization and Its Effects  Technological and Cultural impact of Globalization in India  Impact of globalization on education in India SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT, COMMUNALISM, REGIONALISM & SECULARISM  Regionalism • Introduction  Regionalism Within Nation  Regionalism in India • Why Regional Disparity Still Persists? • Why son of the soil?  Linguistic Reorganization of States  Demand for Dravida Nadu  Telangana Movement  Shiv Sena against Kannadigas  Bodoland Demand within Assam  Khalistan Movement  Attacks on Bihar Labourers by the ULFA  The MNS Targeting North Indians  Inter-State Disputes  Creation of new States in 2000  Impact of Regionalism in India • Positive • Negative  Nationalism and Regionalism  Federalism and Regionalism  Why diversity of India is Supreme Guarantee of Democracy?  Regionalism in International Arena  OLD Regionalism  NEW Regionalism  Impact of Regionalism on the World  Conclusion  Secularism • What Is Secularism • Opposes inter-religious Domination  Secular State  Need of a Secular State THE WESTERN MODEL OF SECULARISM THE INDIAN MODEL OF SECULARISM  What makes Indian Secularism Distinctive? • First Difference • Second Difference • Third Difference CRITICISMS OF INDIAN SECULARISM  Questions  Kemal Ataturk’s Secularism  Nehru on Secularism’  Communalism • Introduction • What is Communalism? • Evolution of communalism in Indian Society STAGES IN INDIAN COMMUNALISM AND HOW IT SPREAD DIVIDE AND RULE  Causes of Communal Violence in Independent India  Infamous communal violence in India • Partition of India,1947 • Anti-Sikh Nots, 1984 • Ethnic cleansing of Kashmiri Hindu Pundits in 1989 • Babri masjid demolition in Ayodhya,1992 • Assam Communal Violence, 2012 • Muzaffarnagar Violence, 2013  Consequences of communalism / Impact of Communalism • Communal Violence • What State has done?  Definition of Communal Violence • Why a law needed? • More Arguments for a Separate Law • But Caveats Exist  Steps Required  Challenge of Social Media and Freedom of Expression  Conclusion  Communal Violence (Prevention, Control and Rehabilitation of Victims) Bill, 2005 • Objective • Features in the Draft Bill • Communal Violence Bill, 2011 • The Draft Law Features • Some Issues with the Draft • Conclusion  Role of Caste in Indian Society  Caste in Politics  Reservation Policy  Reservations for SCs and STs  Reservations for the OBCs  Importance of Woman’s Reservation REGIONALISM  What is Regionalism?  Factors Responsible for Regionalism in India  Geographical Factors • Historical Factors • Linguistic Factors • Religious Factors • Political Factors • Economic Factors • Ethnic Factors • Cultural Factors • Caste System  Impact of Regionalism in India • Positive • Negative • Solutions to Contain Regionalism COMMUNALISM  Introduction  What is Communalism?  History of communalism in Indian Society  Stages in Indian Communalism  Some Episodes of Communalism in India • Partition of India, 1947 • Anti-Sikh Riots, 1984 • Ethnic cleansing of Kashmiri Hindu Pundits in 1989  Babri Masjid demolition in Ayodhya, 1992  Assam Communal Violence, 2012  Muzaffarnagar Violence, 2013  Causes of Communalism  Effects of Communalism  Steps that have been taken  Steps that are Further Required SECULARISM  Introduction  Secularism in India  How is secularism in India Different?  Features of Western Concept of Secularism  Differences in Indian Secularism  Secularism as Philosophy of the Constitution  Some Current Issues  Criticism of Indian Secularism SOCIETY ………………………………………….. 470 SALIENT FEATURES OF INDIAN SOCIETY, DIVERSITY OF INDIA ROLE OF WOMEN AND WOMEN’S ORGANIZATION POPULATION AND ASSOCIATED ISSUES POVERTY AND DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES URBANIZATION, THEIR PROBLEMS AND THEIR REMEDIES EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION ON INDIAN SOCIETY SOCIAL EMPOWERMENT COMMUNALISM, REGIONALISM & SECULARISM

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